Uhlalutyo kunye nokuCinywa kweZiphoso eziQhelekileyo zenjini yeDiesel Turbocharger

I-Abstract:I-Turbocharger yeyona ibaluleke kakhulu kwaye yenye yezona ndlela zisebenzayo zokuphucula amandla enjini yedizili. Njengoko uxinzelelo lokunyusa lonyuka, amandla enjini yedizili ayonyuka ngokulinganayo. Ke ngoko, nje ukuba i-turbocharger isebenze ngokungaqhelekanga okanye isilele, iya kuba nefuthe elikhulu ekusebenzeni kweinjini yedizili. Ngokophando, kufunyaniswe ukuba ukungaphumeleli kwe-turbocharger kuphakathi kokungaphumeleli kweinjini yedizili kule minyaka idlulileyo Inika inani elikhulu. Kukho ukwanda ngokuthe ngcembe. Phakathi kwazo, ukwehla koxinzelelo, ukunyuka, kunye nokuvuza kweoyile zezona zixhaphakileyo, kwaye ziyingozi kakhulu. Eli nqaku ligxile kumgaqo wokusebenza kwenjini ye-dizeli, ukusetyenziswa kwe-supercharger kulondolozo, kunye nokugwetywa kokungaphumeleli, emva koko kuhlalutywa izizathu zethiyori yokusilela kwe-supercharger kubunzulu, kwaye inike ezinye zezinto ezibangelwe yimeko eyiyo kunye neendlela ezihambelanayo zokusombulula.

Amagama aphambili:injini yedizili; iturbocharger; isiguquli

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Okokuqala, i-supercharger iyasebenza

I-Supercharger esebenzisa i-injini yamandla e-injini ayilunganga, ukujikeleza kweturbine ukuqhuba isinxibelelanisi se-compressor sijikeleza ngesantya esiphezulu se-coaxial kwaye sikhawuleziswe ngumlindi woxinzelelo okhusela izindlu ze-compressor kunye ne-compressor yomoya kwi-injini Isilinda sonyusa intlawulo yesilinda ukuya ukwandisa amandla injini.

Okwesibini, ukusetyenziswa kunye nokugcinwa kwe-turbocharger

Isuphavayiza esebenza ngesantya esiphezulu, ubushushu obuphezulu, iqondo lokungenisa iiturbine inokufikelela kwi-650 ℃, kufuneka kusetyenziswe ingqalelo ekhethekileyo ukwenza umsebenzi wokulungisa.

1. Kwii-turbocharger ezisandula ukwenziwa okanye ezilungisiweyo, sebenzisa izandla ukwenza i-Rotor ngaphambi kofakelo ukukhangela ukujikeleza kwe-Rotor. Kwiimeko eziqhelekileyo, i-rotor kufuneka ijikeleze ngokukhawuleza kwaye iguquguquke, ngaphandle kokuxubha okanye ingxolo engaqhelekanga. Jonga umbhobho wokungenisa isiguquli nokuba akukho nkunkuma kumbhobho wokukhupha injini. Ukuba kukho inkunkuma, kufuneka icocwe kakuhle. Jonga ukuba ioyile yokuthambisa ibingcolile okanye ibolile kwaye kufuneka ithathelwe indawo yioyile entsha yokuthambisa. Ngelixa uthatha indawo yeoyile entsha yokuthambisa, jonga ioyile yokuthambisa, coca okanye ubeke endaweni into entsha yecebo lokucoca ulwelo. Emva kokutshintsha okanye ukucoca isihluzi, isihluzi kufuneka sigcwaliswe ngeoyile yokuthambisa ecocekileyo. Jonga ugwebu lweoyile kwaye ubuyise imibhobho ye-turbocharger. Makungabikho kugqwetha, ukuthambisa, okanye ukucima.
2. Isuphavayiza enkulu mayifakwe ngokuchanekileyo, kwaye unxibelelwano phakathi kwemibhobho yokungena kunye neyokukhupha umbhobho kunye ne-bracket enkulu kufuneka itywinwe ngokungqongqo. Ngenxa yokwanda kwe-thermal xa umbhobho wokukhupha usebenza, amajoyina aqhelekileyo aqhagamshelwe yimfutho.
3. Unikezelo lweoyile yokuthambisa yeoyile enkulu, nikela ingqalelo ekudibaniseni umbhobho wokuthambisa ukugcina ioyile yokuthambisa ingavulelwanga. Uxinzelelo lweoyile lugcinwa kwi-200-400 kPa ngexesha lokusebenza okuqhelekileyo. Xa i-injini ingasebenzi, uxinzelelo lwe-oyile ye-turbocharger akufuneki lube ngaphantsi kwe-80 kPa.
4. Cinezela umbhobho wokupholisa ukugcina amanzi okupholisa ecocekile kwaye engathinteleki.
5. Qhagamshela isihluzo somoya kwaye usigcine sicocekile. Ukwehla okungafunekiyo koxinzelelo lokungenisa akufuneki kudlule kwi-500 mm ikholamu ye-mercury, kuba uxinzelelo olugqithisileyo luya kubangela ukuvuza kweoyile kwi-turbocharger.
6. Ngokombhobho wokukhupha umbhobho, umbhobho wokukhupha wangaphandle kunye ne-muffler, isakhiwo esiqhelekileyo kufuneka sihlangabezane neemfuno ezichaziweyo.
7. Ukuhambisa irhasi yokukhupha iturbine akufuneki kudlule kwi-650 degrees Celsius. Ukuba ubushushu bokukhupha igesi bufunyenwe buphezulu kakhulu kwaye ivolthi ibonakala ibomvu, yeka kwangoko ukuze ufumane unobangela.
8. Emva kokuba injini iqalile, nikela ingqalelo kuxinzelelo kwindawo yokungena ye-turbocharger. Kuya kubakho umboniso woxinzelelo ngaphakathi kwemizuzwana emi-3, kungenjalo i-turbocharger iya kutsha ngenxa yokungabikho kwe-lubrication. Emva kokuba injini iqalile, kufanele ukuba iqhutywe ngaphandle komthwalo ukugcina uxinzelelo lweoyile kunye neqondo lobushushu. Inokuqhutywa ngomthwalo kuphela emva kokuba iqhelekile. Xa amaqondo obushushu asezantsi, ixesha lokungenzi nto kufuneka landiswe ngokufanelekileyo.
9. Jonga kwaye ususe isandi esingaqhelekanga kunye nentshukumo ye-supercharger nangaliphi na ixesha. Gcina uxinzelelo kunye nobushushu beoyile yokuthambisa ye turbocharger nangaliphi na ixesha. Ubushushu obungenayo be-turbine abuyi kudlula kwiimfuno ezichaziweyo. Ukuba kukho nakuphi na ukungaqheleki okufumanekayo, umatshini kufuneka avale phantsi ukufumanisa unobangela kwaye awuphelise.
10. Xa injini ihamba ngesantya esiphezulu kunye nomthwalo opheleleyo, akuvumelekanga ngokungqongqo ukuyimisa kwangoko ngaphandle kokuba kukho imeko kaxakeka. Isantya kufuneka sincitshiswe kancinci ukususa umthwalo. Emva koko yeka ngaphandle komthwalo kangangemizuzu emi-5 ukunqanda umonakalo kwi-turbocharger ngenxa yobushushu kunye nokusilela kweoyile.
11. Jonga ukuba ngaba ukungena kunye nokuphuma kwemibhobho yesiguquli kulungile na. Ukuba kukho ukuphuka kunye nokuvuza komoya, kususe ngexesha. Kuba ukuba isiguquli inlet umbhobho yaphukile. Umoya uya kungena kwisiguquli kuqhekeko. Inkunkuma iya kubangela ukonakala kwivili le-compressor, kunye nepayipi ye-compressor ephuma kunye nokuvuza, okuya kubangela ukuba umoya ongonelanga ungene kwisilinda se-injini, okukhokelela ekonakaleni komlilo.
12. Jonga ukuba ngaba imibhobho engenayo nephuma kwioli ye-turbocharger ihleli na, kwaye ususe nayiphi na indawo evuzayo.
13. Jonga iibholiti zokubopha kunye namandongomane e-turbocharger. Ukuba iibholiti zihamba, i-turbocharger iya konakaliswa ngenxa yentshukumo. Kwangelo xesha, isantya se-turbocharger siza kuncipha ngenxa yokuvuza kwamanzi echibini, okukhokelela kukungoneli komoya.

Okwesithathu, uhlalutyo kunye neendlela zokusombulula iingxaki kwiimpazamo ze-turbocharger

1.I-turbocharger ayiguquki ngokujikeleza.

UPHAWU. Xa iqondo lobushushu lenjini yedizili liphantsi, umbhobho wokukhupha umoya ukhupha umsi omhlophe, kwaye xa ubushushu benjini buphezulu, umbhobho wokukhupha ukhupha umsi omnyama, kwaye inxalenye yomsi iyaphuma kwaye ijikeleze ijikeleze, kwaye inxenye yomsi iyagxininiswa kwaye ikhutshwe ngaphezulu.
UKUHLOLA. Xa injini yedizili imisiwe, mamela ixesha lokujikeleza okungafaniyo kwento eyi-supercharger kunye nentonga yokubeka iliso, kwaye ivili eliqhelekileyo liyaqhubeka nokujikeleza lodwa umzuzu omnye. Ngokubeka esweni, kwafunyaniswa ukuba i-turbocharger yangasemva ijika yodwa imizuzwana embalwa emva koko yema. Emva kokususa i-turbocharger yangasemva, kwafumaniseka ukuba kukho idipozithi enobunzima bekhabhoni kwiturbine kunye nevolthi.
UHLAHLELO. Ukujikeleza okungaguquguqukiyo kwe-turbocharger kukhokelela kumqolo weesilinda kunye nokuncipha kokutya komoya kunye nomyinge ophantsi woxinzelelo. Xa iqondo lobushushu benjini liphantsi, ipetroli ekwisilinda ayinakutshiswa ngokupheleleyo, kwaye inxenye yayo ikhutshwa njengenkungu, kwaye ukutsha akuphelelanga xa ubushushu benjini bonyuka. Ukukhupha umsi omnyama, kuba inye kuphela i-turbocharger enesiphene, umoya owuthathayo iisilinda ezibini ngokwahlukileyo ngokwahlukileyo, ukhokelela kwimeko apho umsi wokukhupha usasazeke ngokuyinxenye kwaye ubukhulu becala ugxile. Kukho izinto ezimbini ekubunjweni kweedipozithi zecoke: enye kukuvuza kweoyile ye-turbocharger, Okwesibini kukutsha okungaphelelanga kwedizili kwisilinda.
NGAPHANDLE. Kuqala susa iidipozithi zekhabhoni, emva koko ubeke endaweni yamatywina eoyile yeeturbocharger. Kwangelo xesha, ingqalelo kufuneka ihlawulwe kulondolozo kunye nohlengahlengiso lwenjini yedizili, njengokuhlengahlengisa ukucoca ivalve kwangexesha, ukucoca isihluzi somoya kwangexesha, nokulungisa izitofu ukunciphisa ukwenziwa kweedipozithi zekhabhoni.

2. Ioyile ye-turbocharger, ukuhambisa ioyile kwindlela yomoya

IIMPAWU. Xa injini yedizili itshisa ngesiqhelo, kuyabonakala ukuba umbhobho wokukhupha umoya ukhupha umfaniswano kunye nomsi oqhubekayo oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Kwimeko yokutsha okungaqhelekanga, kunzima ukubona umsi oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ngenxa yokuphazamiseka komsi omhlophe okanye umsi omnyama.
UKUHLOLA. Ukuqhaqha ikhava yokuphela yombhobho wedizili, kunokubonwa ukuba kukho inani elincinci leoyile kumbhobho wokutya. Emva kokususa i-supercharger, kufunyaniswa ukuba itywina leoyile linxityiwe.
UHLAHLELO. Icebo lokucoca ulwelo livalwe ngokunzulu, ukuhla koxinzelelo kwindawo yokungena ye-compressor kukhulu kakhulu, amandla e-elastic ye-compressor yokuphelisa itywina leoyile incinci kakhulu okanye isithuba se-axial sikhulu kakhulu, indawo yokufaka ayichanekanga, kwaye ilahlekelwa kukuqina kwayo , Kwaye isiphelo se-compressor sitywinwe. Umngxuma womoya uvalekile, kwaye umoya oxinzelelweyo awunakungena ngasemva kwesixhobo sokunyanzela.
NGAPHANDLE. Kufunyenwe ukuba i-turbocharger ivuza i-oyile, itywina leoyile kufuneka litshintshwe ngexesha, kwaye isihluzi somoya kufuneka sicocwe kwangexesha ukuba kunyanzelekile, kwaye umngxunya womoya kufuneka ucocwe.

3. ukunyusa uxinzelelo

Unobangela wokungasebenzi kakuhle
1. Isihluzi somoya kunye nokungenisa umoya kuthintelwe, kwaye ukuxhathisa kokungenisa umoya kukhulu.
2. Indlela yokuhamba kwecompressor iyadyobheka, kwaye umbhobho wedizili wokungenisa idizili uyavuza.
3. Umbhobho wokukhupha i-injini yedizili uyavuza, kwaye umoya ovuthuzayo womoya uvaliwe, nto leyo eyonyusa uxinzelelo lwangasemva lokukhupha ize inciphise ukusebenza kweinjini yomoya.

Ukuphelisa
1. Coca isihluzo somoya
2. Coca umbane wecompressor ukuphelisa ukuvuza komoya.
3. Ukuphelisa ukuvuza komoya kumbhobho wokukhupha kunye nokucoca iqokobhe leinjini.
4. Isiguquli sinyuka.

Izizathu zokusilela
1. Indawo yokungenisa umoya ivaliwe, nto leyo inciphisa ukuhamba kokungena komoya okuvalelweyo.
2. Indawo yokuhambisa igesi, kubandakanya umsesane wombhobho wesixhobo seeturbine, ivaliwe.
3. Injini yedizili isebenza phantsi kweemeko ezingaqhelekanga, ezinje ngokuguquguquka kwemithwalo kakhulu, ukucinywa okungxamisekileyo.

Khuphela ngaphandle
1. Coca umoya ococekileyo ococekileyo, ococekileyo, umbhobho wokutya kunye nezinye iindawo ezinxulumene noko.
2. Coca iinxalenye zeinjini yomoya.
3. Thintela iimeko ezingaqhelekanga zokusebenza ngexesha lokusetyenziswa, kwaye usebenze ngokweenkqubo zokusebenza.
4. I-turbocharger inejubane eliphantsi.

Izizathu zokusilela
1. Ngenxa yokuvuza okukhulu kwe-oyile, iglu yeoyile okanye idipozithi zekhabhoni ziyaqokelelana kwaye zithintele ukujikeleza kwerotor yenjini.
2. Isenzeko sokurabha ngemagnethi okanye ukonakala okubangelwa ngumoya ojikelezayo ikakhulu kungenxa yokunxiba okuqatha kwebheringi okanye ukusebenza phantsi kwesantya esiphezulu nangaphezulu kobushushu, obangela ukuba iRotor ikhubazeke kwaye yonakaliswe.
3. Ukudinwa ngenxa yezi zizathu zilandelayo:
A. Ukungoneli koxinzelelo lweoyile kunye nokuthambisa okungalunganga;
B. Ubushushu beoyile yeenjini buphezulu kakhulu;
C. I-oyile yenjini ayicocekanga;
D. Rotor ibhalansi eguqukayo iyatshatyalaliswa;
E. Ukucoca kwiNdibano akuhlangabezani neemfuno ezifunekayo;
Ukusetyenziswa okungalunganga kunye nokusebenza.

Unyango
1. Yenza ukucoca.
2. Yenza disassembly kunye nokuhlolwa, kwaye endaweni rotor ukuba kukho imfuneko.
3. Fumanisa unobangela, susa ubungozi obufihliweyo, uze ufake endaweni entsha umkhono odadayo.
4. I-supercharger yenza isandi esingaqhelekanga.

Unobangela wokukhutshwa
1. Umsantsa ophakathi kwento evuzayo yerhasi kunye nobukhulu bayo buncinci kakhulu, obangela ukurabha kwamandla kazibuthe.
2. Umkhono odadayo okanye ipleyiti yokujija inxitywe kakhulu, kwaye iRotor inentshukumo eninzi kakhulu, ebangela ukurabha kwemagnethi phakathi kwe-impeller kunye ne-casing.
3. Isiphene sonakele okanye ijenali ye-shaft inxitywe ngokungagungqiyo, ibangele ukuba ibhalansi ye-rotor yonakaliswe.
4. Iidipozithi ezibi zekhabhoni kwiturbine, okanye umba wangaphandle owela kwi-turbocharger.
5. Ukunyuka kwesiguquli kunokuvelisa nengxolo engaqhelekanga.

Indlela yokuphelisa
1. Qwalasela ukususwa okufanelekileyo, uqhaqhe kwaye uphande ukuba kukho imfuneko.
2. Jonga isixa sokubhukuda kwe-rotor, udibanise kwaye uhlolisise ukuba kukho imfuneko, kwaye uphinde uhlolisise ukucoca.
3. Ukuqhaqha kwaye ujonge ibhalansi eguqukayo enamandla.
4. Yenza disassembly, uhlolo kunye nokucoca.
5. Ukuphelisa imeko yokunyuka.


Ixesha Post: 19-04-21